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Equity, Diversity, & Inclusivity: Library Resources

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Two-Spirit

Two-spirit flag, rainbow coloured, with two black and white feathers in centre of flag.

Two-Spirit (also Two Spirit, two spirit, and twospirit) is an umbrella term adopted in 1990 referring to North American Indigenous people who embody both masculine and feminine spirits. Two-Spirit is used by Indigenous peoples to describe their gender, sexuality, and spiritual identity. Its abbreviation is 2S as seen in LGBTQ2S+. Indigiqueer is another term sometimes used to refer to the Two-Spirit identity. 

Many indigenous terms exist to refer to identities outside of the Western gender binary. Here are some examples along with their definitions:

  • Winkte (Lakota): "to be as a woman"
  • Nádleehí (Navajo): "those who transform"
  • Ikwekaazo and ininiikaazo (Ojibwe): "one who endeavors to be like a woman" and "one who endeavors to be like a man", respectively.

Books

Search examples (keywords, topics, etc.)

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The following are keyword search results from the library catalogue and 300+ databases. Results include academic journal articles, ebooks, books, magazine/news articles, reviews, etc. Consider some of these as a base onto which you can add more specific search terms, such as “twospirit" and history.

Please note: you may need to include outdated and/or problematic terms to see historical works.

These keywords, and any others you are interested in for your research, can also be searched in the journals and databases listed on this page.

Databases