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Open Science

Open Science is an important scientific movement that is making scientific research transparent and accessible to many groups through collaborative networks.

EU 8 Pillars

The eight pillars of Open Science

Eight pillars have been identified by the European Commission to promote open science: FAIR Data, Research Integrity, Next Generation Metrics, Future of Scholarly Communication, Citizen Science, Education and Skills, Rewards and Incentives, and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).

1. FAIR Data

FAIR principles mean that data produced by researchers are:

  • Findable – by the academic community and general public;
  • Accessible – via persistent identifiers, metadata, and clear language understandable to persons and machines;
  • Interoperable – via the application of standards and protocols that allow data to be exchanged without loss of information;
  • Reusable – thus maximizing their potential in research.

2. Research Integrity

Research should adhere to commonly agreed standards of honestyrespecttransparency, and accountability. The University of Milan is committed to maintaining the highest standards of research integrity.

3. Next Generation Metrics

This pillar of Open Science acknowledges cultural change in progress with respect to the use of bibliometric indicators and their use in assessing research quality, going beyond a simple citation count and impact factor.

Appropriate metrics, deriving from different sources and describing different aspects can help us better describe and understand the impact and importance of a study.

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4. Future of Scholarly Communication

This pillar is one of the most complex because the paths to full accessibility of research are many and varied.

5. Citizen Science

This pillar regards the interaction between researchers and the public in research projects, acknowledging the invaluable role played by the public in providing new research stimuli.

6. Education and Skills

Scientific communication is undergoing transformation and institutions should provide researchers and students with ongoing training. 

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7. Rewards and Incentives

If Open Science is to be valued, its practices must be recognized by academic departments and policy makers to promote broad sharing of best practices.

The eight pillars of Open Science