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Evaluating What You Read

SIFT: Stop, Investigate the source, Find trusted coverage, and Trace claims back to the original context.

RADAR Framework: Rationale, Authority, Date, Accuracy, Relevance  



The Socratic Problem:

"Each age, each intellectual turn, produces a Socrates of its own... even among those who knew him in life, there was profound disagreement about what his actual views and methods were." - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

"Plato's and Xenophon's portraits, inconsistent as they are with Aristophanes', are also inconsistent with each other. This is the root of ‘the Socratic problem’, the question whether we can ever capture the personality and philosophy of the historical Socrates or whether we must limit ourselves to the interpretation of one or another of his literary representations." - The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World


  • So much info
  • Understanding scholarly communication: academic discourse over the centuries

Background Info: Encyclopedias, Handbooks, Biographical Info

Search Tools

UA Library Search Tips


Library Catalogue - search for books and ebooks at the UofA and NEOS partner libraries.
Example Searches:

  • Crito justice
  • Socrates trial
  • Socrates drama

EBSCO Discovery (aka "Find Articles")
Example searches:

  • Socrates and impiety
  • Socrates and trial and (guilt* or innocen*)





Legal Info

Primary Sources


Plato Apology

In Philosophy, primary sources can include:

  • Philosophical texts, treatises, meditations

  • Personal narratives, diaries, memoirs, correspondence, letters

  • Speeches

Bibliography / Suggested Readings

Old School: Bibliographies

Don't hesitate to ask for help finding the chapters, books, articles, etc. that are listed in bibliographies.