Alternative metrics are based on data generated by the use of and interaction with information online, such as number of downloads and pageviews from a publisher, repository, or online reference manager, or the amount of discussion generated in online venues such as Twitter or blogs.
Alternative metrics can be used to complement traditional metrics, to measure impacts in fields where citation metrics aren't as applicable, or to show the impact of research on a broader audience.
Some examples of alternative metrics that can be used to measure impact, by research output type, are:
Alternative metric data can be gathered from a variety of sources, such as social media platforms, citation managers, publishers, databases, library websites, and more.
The following databases also provide aggregate altmetrics for individual articles: