Researchers' contributions go beyond the academy and include impacts on the economy, industry and business, public policy, culture, behaviour, and society.
This type of impact can include:
Some of the factors that help generate impact include:
First, the bad news: for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of attributing societal changes or benefits to a particular research output and time lag between the production of research and its impact, it is not clear how to evaluate the societal impacts of research.
Despite this, some approaches being used are: