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APA Citation Style


Journal article with up to and including seven authors:

Crawford, M., & Witte, M. (1999). Strategies for mathematics: Teaching in context. Educational Leadership, 57, 134-138.

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.184)

Journal article with eight or more authors:

 Johnson, C. A., Bound, L., Jones, P. P., Smith, D. J., Lind, R. E., Miller, S. J., ...Yuckyuck, H. (2003). Reading for pleasure: A concept analysis. Journal of Laughter, 26(5), 1-11.

Note: Journals that have multiple issues in a volume include issue information in brackets after the volume number.

(Publication Manual, 2010, pp.175-7 & 198)

Electronic articles

For electronic articles, follow the formats above, adding a DOI or URL at the end of the reference, like so:

Olsson, C. A., Bond, L., Burns, J. M., Vella-Brokrick, D. A., & Sawyer, S. M. (2003). Adolescent resilience: A concept analysis.  Journal of Adolescence, 26, 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0140-1971(02)00118-5

(Publication Manual, 2010, pp.189-192 & 198-9)

If no DOI is available for an article accessed electronically, provide a link to the journal's homepage, e.g.

Robinson, D. B., & Randall, L. (2016). Smooth sailing or stormy seas? Atlantic Canadian physical educators on the state and future of physical education. Canadian Journal Of Education, 39(1), 1-31.  Retrieved from

Magazine article 

Grey, C. (1992, September).  Childhood immunizations. Chatelaine, 65(9), 38.

(Publication Manual, 2010, pp.183-192 & 200)

Newspaper article

Simon, P. (2009, November 7). Stoic Albertan attitude to sick days has morphed into viral paranoia. Edmonton Journal, p. B1.

(Publication Manual, 2010, pp.183-192 & 200)

Book Review

Goodman, A. L. (1951, July 16). Catcher in the rye [Book review]. New Republic, 125, 20.

(Publication Manual, 2010, pp.183-192 & 200)

Interview conducted by someone else that you read in an article

Adams, E. (2012, June). Aubrey Plaza on the challenges of romance and time travel. A.V Club. Retrieved from,79198/

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.200 & APA Style Blog)

Interview recorded and available in an archive

Smith, M.B (1989, August 12). Inveriew by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President's Oral History Project, American Psychological Association, APA Archives, Washington, DC.

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.214)

For more information on citing interviews, see the APA Style Blog here.

Paper Presentation

Johnson, C. J. (2007, April). Alaskan fauna: Grizzlies in the parks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Sierra Club, Seattle, WA.

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.206)

ERIC documents

ERIC document (online)

Mamaril, N. J. A., & Royal, K. D. (2008). Women and minorities in engineering: A review of the literature. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED506512)


ERIC document (microfiche)

Ratleff, J. E. (1989).  Instructional strategies for crosscultural students with special education needs. Sacramento, CA: Resources in Special Education. (ERIC Document No. ED383154)

DOIs and URLs

Always cite the DOI, if one is available. If the ebook has no DOI, which is common, cite the URL where it is available.

Check out this great flowchart from the APA style blog for DOI v. URL decision making! 

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