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APA Citation Style (7th Edition)


Since a survey you conducted yourself is not published elsewhere by someone else, you do not cite it in the same way you cite other materials. Instead, in your paper you describe your survey and make it clear that the data you’re referring to is from the survey, usually by saying so in introductory sentences. In your paper, you should include a short overview of your survey method: whom the survey was administered to, how it was administered, how many responses you got, and what kind of questions you asked. You should include a copy of the survey instrument (the full set of questions asked) as an appendix to your paper. You do not need to include your survey in your works cited list.

Source: Purdue OWL: General APA FAQs 

Business Information

Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. 

Source: Reference List: Basic Rules (Purdue OWL)

Citing Business Databases:

Include the retrieval date when no exact date is found or when the content may be changed or updated frequently.

(Please note: the Business Librarians have adapted APA style for use by Business students, particularly when citing databases names in the of retrieval information.)

Tip: Most company and industry profiles do not have a personal author (ex:  John Smith).   When you do not have a personal author for a market research report or profile, you can use one of the following options:

  • Corporate name or trade organization name (ex:  Starbucks Corporation or National Sporting Goods Association)
  • Name of market research firm that provided the report (ex:  Euromonitor International, Marketline)
  • When you cannot identify any of the above, use the name of the database (ex:  First Research). (courtesy of Butler University)
Database Examples (Listed Alphabetically):

Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from

In-text citation (Kantar Media, n.d.)

BCC Research

BCC Research Staff. (2019, March). Wearable medical devices: Technologies and global markets.

 In-text citation (BCC Research Staff, 2019)

Corporate Author

BCC Research. (2018, May). Food Service Contractors: Global Markets to 2022.

 In-text citation (BCC Research, 2018)



Bloomberg. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada.

Bloomberg. (2017). Environmental, social, and governance analysis for Bank of Canada 11/10/12 to 11/10/17.

In-text citation (Bloomberg, 2019)

                          (Bloomberg, 2017)

Business Source Complete

Petrak, L. (2020). Full Circle: Reusable Packaging for Consumer Products and Reusable Containers for Food Retailers Reflect Continued Interest in Sustainability, Even in a Pandemic. Progressive Grocer, 99(8), 71–73.

In-text citation (Petrak, L. 2009)


Canadian Newsstream


Stephenson, A. (2012, Jun 15). Alberta tourism operators see market picking up. Calgary Herald

In-text citation (Stephenson, 2012) 


Brunico Communications. (n.d.). Bell Media. CARDOnline. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from

In-text citation (CARDonline, n.d.)

CCH Online

CCH Canadian Limited. (2013). Workers’ compensation in Canada, 51A. Retrieved from CCH Online database.

In-text citation (CCH Canadian Limited, 2013)

Firth, M., Murray, B.F., & Wisner, S. (Eds.). (2010, February). Recent cases: Tax court judge erred - failed to take into account extended definition of "property". Canadian GST Monitor, #257. Retrieved from CCH Online database.

In-text citation (Firth, Murray, & Wisner, 2010)

Conference Board of Canada

Ai, Lin. (2013, September). Canada's food manufacturing industry: Industrial outlook, Summer 2013

In-text citation (Ai, 2013)

Corporate Author

Conference Board of Canada. (2012, May). Canada's oil and gas support activities industry: Industrial profile, Spring 2012

In-text citation (Conference Board of Canada, 2012) 


Country Review Report

Youngblood-Coleman, Denise. (2010). Country Review: France. [2011 Edition].

In-text citation (Youngblood-Coleman, Denise, 2015)

** note: Denise Youngblood-Coleman is the editor-in-chief of CountryWatch, therefore is listed as author for Country Reviews. See the CountryWatch Citation page.


Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2015, September). Country report: Lithuania.

In-text citation (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2015)


Starbucks. (2012, September 30). Form 10-K

In-text citation (Starbucks, 2012)


Briggs, P., Dolliver, M., Kim, A., Koch, L., & Wurmser, Y. (2020, February). Canada digital habits by generation: Identifying key distinctions across age groups, from teens to baby boomers. eMarketer.

In-text citation (Brigg et al., 2020)


Raice, S. (2013, January 8). Big banks settle mortgage hangover. Wall Street Journal, A1.

In-text citation (Raice, 2013, A1)

Company Profiles

FactSet Research Systems Inc. (2013). McDonalds Corp. Company snapshot.

In-text citation (FactSet Research Systems Inc., 2013)

Tim Hortons. Company snapshot. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from

In-text citation (Tim Hortons, 2013)

First Research

Industry Profile

First Research. (2012, June 4). Coffee shops.

In-text citation (First Research, 2013)


Fitch Connect (Formerly known as BMI Research)

Fitch Solutions Group Limited. (n.d.). Mexico agribusiness report Q1 2020 [Industry profile]. BMI Research.

 In-text citation (Fitch Solutions Group, n.d.)

Frost and Sullivan

Frost and Sullivan. (2018, November 28). Future of mass market and premium performance vehicles, 2025

In-text citation (Frost and Sullivan, 2018)

Global Financial Data

Global Financial Data. (2013). Canada Dollar per US Dollar. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from

In-text citation (Global Financial Data, 2013)


Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] . IBISWorld.

In-text citation (Diment, 2019) 

IMD World Competitiveness Online

IMD World Competitiveness Online. (2015, September). Chile: Country profile.

In-text citation (IMD World Competitiveness Online, 2015)

MarketLine Advantage

MarketLine. (2019). Renewable energy in Mexico [Industry profile].

In-text citation (MarketLine, 2019)

MarketLine. (2019). Immunology influencer network: Influencer analytics 2/27/2020 - 5/27/2020.

In-text citation (MarketLine, 2019) Academic

Mind Commerce. (2020, May). IoT in healthcare: Market outlook and forecasts 2020-2027 [Market report].

In-text citation (Mind Commerce, 2020).

Mergent Online

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from

In-text citation (Mergent Inc., n.d.)

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group: R. Dean Hollis [Executive bio]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from

In-text citation (Mergent Inc., n.d.) 


Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel.

In-text citation (Failla, J., 2020)

Market Research Report

Mintel. (n.d.). Shampoo & conditioners: Retail market segmentation by values. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from

In-text citation (Mintel, n.d.)


Scarola, C. & Ko, W. (2020, May). Aerospace & defense [Industry survey]. NetAdvantage

In-text citation (Scrola, C., 202


Orbis (Bureau van Dijk)

Bureau van Dijk. Company report: Suncor Energy Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from

In-text citation (Bureau van Dijk, 2013)


Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport.

In-text citation (Homma, 2020)

Euromonitor. (n.d.). Apparel and footwear USA [Market sizes]. Passport. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from

In-text citation (Euromonitor n.d.)

Euromonitor. (2018, February 8). Population change as a megatrend driver [Briefing]. Passport.  h

In-text citation (Euromonitor, 2018.

Euromonitor.  (n.d.) Apparel and footwear dashboard: Store-based retailing [Chart]. Passport.  Retrieved June 4, 2020, from

In-text citation (Euromonitor n.d.)


**Manifold Data Mining is the author- they own Polaris

Citing a report you created:

Manifold Data Mining. (2019). Profile report- (add neighbourhood names). Retrieved from

In-text citation (Manifold Data Mining, 2019)

Citing the Lifestyle Cluster descriptions:

Manifold Data Mining. (2017, July 19). Manifold CanaCode lifestyle cluster. Retrieved from

In-text citation (Manifold Data Mining, 2017, page number- if there are any in the report)  


Proquest Business Collection Complete

Moshiri, S. (2015). Asymmetric effects of oil price shocks in oil-exporting countries: The role of institutions. OPEC Energy Review, 39(2), 222-246. Retrieved from

In-text citation (Moshiri, 2015)


CIBC Capital Trust. (2012, December 6). 2012 annual report. Retrieved from

In-text citation (CIBC Capital Trust, 2012)


Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Look at the Variable Metadata or View Metadata section in order to get the Source information -- which agency collected the data. The Date is whatever year the data were collected.

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [% households consuming imported beer/ale: Drank in last 6 months, for ZIP codes 55416, 55401, and Minneapolis metro area] [Data set]. MRI Consumer Survey US.

In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics, 2019)

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US.

In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics, 2019)

SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US.

In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics, 2019)

SimplyAnalytics. (2018). [Map showing # multimarket data - Leisure activities - Current level of interest in major league soccer (MLS) - Somewhat, for Minneapolis-St. Paul DMA]. Scarborough Local Insights.

In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics, 2019)


Statista. (2019). Footwear market in Canada.


In-text citation (Statista, 2019)


FYI Music News. (2019, April). Recorded music industry revenue in Canada from 2013 to 2018 (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In Statista.


In-text citation (FYI Music News, 2019)


Mälkki, T., Sánchez, Oliver. (2018, September). Transportation: Air - ISIC 51 - Statista Industry Report – Global.


In-text citatio(Mälkki & Sánchez, 2019)

Statistics Canada

Find the permalink to cite the Census table directly whenever possible, rather than the various visualization tools such as CHASS which do not have permalinks.

Statistics Canada. (2017). Census profile, 2016 Census: Montréal (Census metropolitan area), Quebec and Quebec (Province) (Table 98-316-X2016001) [Data set].

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Income - total sex: Total - income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households [Data set]. CHASS.

In-text citation (Statistics Canada, 2017)

Thomson ONE

Doerksen, C. & Umayr, A. (2012, January 16). Westjet Airlines Ltd. National Bank Financial.

In-text citation (Doerksen & Umayr, 2012)


Thomson Financial. (2015). Westjet Airlines Limited: Company overview.

In-text citation (Thomson Financial, 2015)


Citing Online Business Articles

When you cite an article from an electronic source, APA prefers the DOI (if available). If there is no DOI, the second choice is a website URL

Reminder: You can list the database instead of a URL or DOI, if the cited information is not available on a public webpage, but was found in a library database.


Personal Communications

APA states "Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communications are not included in the reference list; they are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible." (APA, 2020, p. 260)

An interview or a telephone conversation:

  • An interview or phone conversation do not provide recoverable data, and are NOT included in the reference list. You would only include them in the text of your report. Include communicator initials and surname as well as the date.

Email Communications

  • E-mail communications from individuals should be cited as personal communications. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.


First citation in text: J.T. Smith (personal communication, April 24, 2019) stated that headwinds continue to affect growth in the Alberta energy sector in 2019.

First citation in parenthetical format:  Headwinds continue to affect the Alberta energy sector in 2019 (J.T. Smith, personal communication, April 24, 2019).

BUS 201:
Site Visit at Costco (personal communication,  Apr. 12, 2019)

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