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APA Citation Style (6th Edition)


Since a survey you conducted yourself is not published elsewhere by someone else, you do not cite it in the same way you cite other materials. Instead, in your paper you describe your survey and make it clear that the data you’re referring to is from the survey, usually by saying so in introductory sentences. In your paper, you should include a short overview of your survey method: whom the survey was administered to, how it was administered, how many responses you got, and what kind of questions you asked. You should include a copy of the survey instrument (the full set of questions asked) as an appendix to your paper. You do not need to include your survey in your works cited list.

Source: Purdue OWL: General APA FAQs 

Business Information

Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Source: Reference List: Basic Rules (Purdue OWL)

Citing Business Databases:

When citing from a library database, include the the database name only.  Only use a URL when citing directly from a website or wiki.  Include the retrieval date when no exact date is found or when the content may be changed or updated frequently.

(Please note: the Winspear Business Librarians have adapted APA style for use by Business students, particularly when citing databases names in the of retrieval information.)

Tip: Most company and industry profiles do not have a personal author (ex:  John Smith).   When you do not have a personal author for a market research report or profile, you can use one of the following options:

  • Corporate name or trade organization name (ex:  Starbucks Corporation or National Sporting Goods Association)
  • Name of market research firm that provided the report (ex:  Euromonitor International, Marketline)
  • When you cannot identify any of the above, use the name of the database (ex:  First Research). (courtesy of Butler University)
Database Examples (Listed Alphabetically):

Kantar Media. (2014). Swiffer: Media mix report, annual, 2013 [Data]. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from Ad$pender database.*

In-text citation (Kantar Media, 2014)

*citation courtesy of Bentley University Library.

BCC Research

Kumar, Aneesh. (2015, June). Sports Nutrition and High Energy Supplements: The Global Market.  Retrieved from BCC Research database.

 In-text citation (Kumar, 2015)

Corporate Author

BCC Research. (2018, May). Food Service Contractors: Global Markets to 2022. Retrieved from BCC Research database.

 In-text citation (BCC Research, 2018)



Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.

In-text citation (Bloomberg, 2008)

BMI Research

Business Monitor International. (2015, October). Philippines tourism report Q4 2015 (Industry overview). Retrieved from BMI Research database.

In-text citation (Business Monitor International, 2015)

Business Source Complete

Datamonitor. (2009, March). Pharmaceuticals, biotechnology & life sciences industry profile: Global. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

In-text citation (Datamonitor, 2009)

Canadian Newsstream

Stephenson, A. (2012, Jun 15). Alberta tourism operators see market picking up. Calgary Herald. Retrieved from Canadian Newsstand Complete database.

In-text citation (Stephenson, 2012) 


CARDonline (2013). Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from CARDOnline database.

In-text citation (CARDonline, 2013)

CCH Online

CCH Canadian Limited. (2013). Workers’ compensation in Canada, 51A. Retrieved from CCH Online database.

In-text citation (CCH Canadian Limited, 2013)

Firth, M., Murray, B.F., & Wisner, S. (Eds.). (2010, February). Recent cases: Tax court judge erred - failed to take into account extended definition of "property". Canadian GST Monitor, #257. Retrieved from CCH Online database.

In-text citation (Firth, Murray, & Wisner, 2010)

Conference Board of Canada

Ai, Lin. (2013, September). Canada's food manufacturing industry: Industrial outlook, Summer 2013. Retrieved from the Conference Board of Canada e-Library service.

In-text citation (Ai, 2013)

Corporate Author

Conference Board of Canada. (2012, May). Canada's oil and gas support activities industry: Industrial profile, Spring 2012. Retrieved from the Conference Board of Canada e-Library service.

In-text citation (Conference Board of Canada, 2012)


Country Review Report

Youngblood-Coleman, Denise. (2010). Country Review: France. [2011 Edition]. Retrieved from CountryWatch database.**

In-text citation (Youngblood-Coleman, Denise, 2015)

** note: Denise Youngblood-Coleman is the editor-in-chief of CountryWatch, therefore is listed as author for Country Reviews. See the CountryWatch Citation page.

Country Wire News Report

Love, Brian. (2015, September 22). OECD tells Europe to act fast with 1 million migrants expectedCountry Wire. Retrieved from CountryWatch database.

In-text citation (Love, 2015)


Datastream International. Imports (NA) of goods and services (SAAR). Retrieved September 30, 2009 from Datastream database.

In-text citation (Datastream International, 2009)

Datastream International. Constituents of the S&P 500. Retrieved October 2, 2009 from Datastream database.

In-text citation (Datastream International, 2009)

Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2015, September). Country report: Lithuania. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.

In-text citation (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2015)


Starbucks. (2012, September 30). Form 10-K. Retrieved from EDGAR database.

In-text citation (Starbucks, 2012)


Williamson, Debra Aho. (November 12, 2013). Social media advertising: Seven trends for 2014. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

In-text citation (Williamson, 2013)


Raice, S. (2013, January 8). Big banks settle mortgage hangover. Wall Street Journal, A1. Retrieved January 9, 2013 from Factiva database.

In-text citation (Raice, 2013, A1)

Company Profiles

FactSet Research Systems Inc. (2013). McDonalds Corp. Company snapshot. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Factiva database.

In-text citation (FactSet Research Systems Inc., 2013)


Tim Hortons. Company snapshot. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from FinancialPost.com database.

In-text citation (Tim Hortons, 2013)

First Research

Industry Profile

First Research. (2012, June 4). Coffee shops Retrieved from First Research database.

In-text citation (First Research, 2013)

Forrester Research

Ray, A. & Riley, E. (2010, December 6). Twitter automatic messages: Easy but dangerous. Retrieved from Forrester Research database.

In-text citation (Ray & Riley, 2010)


Frost and Sullivan

Rajagopalan, Sowmya. (2014, January 6). Healthcare in the Netherlands. Retrieved from Frost and Sullivan database.

In-text citation (Rajagopolan, 2014)

Global Financial Data

Global Financial Data. (2013). Canada Dollar per US Dollar. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Global Financial Data database.

In-text citation (Global Financial Data, 2013)


Kruchkin, A. (2012, August). IBISWorld industry report 11111: Soybean farming in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

In-text citation (Kruchkin, 2012)

IMD World Competitiveness Online

IMD World Competitiveness Online. (2015, September). Chile: Country profile. Retrieved from IMD World Competitiveness Online.

In-text citation (IMD World Competitiveness Online, 2015)

ISI Emerging Markets

ISI Emerging Markets. (2010, December 18). Hotel listings. China Daily. Retrieved from ISI Emerging Markets database.

In-text citation (ISI Emerging Markets, 2010)

MarketLine Advantage

MarketLine. (2012, June 28). Hilton Worldwide [Company profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

In-text citation (MarketLine, 2012)

MarketLine. (2012, October 12). United States - hotels & motels [Industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

In-text citation (MarketLine, 2012)

MarketResearch.com Academic

Packaged Facts. (2012, March). Mobile and alternative payments in Canada. Retrieved from MarketResearch.com Academic database.

In-text citation (Packaged Facts, 2012).

Mergent Online

Mergent Inc. (2013). Google Inc.: Full company report. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Mergent Online database.

In-text citation (Mergent Inc., 2013)


Infographic Overview

Mintel Group Ltd. (2015, September). Infographic overview: Coffee. Retrieved from Mintel database.

In-text citation (Mintel Group Ltd., 2015)

Market Research Report

Walji, A. (2018, April). A year of innovation in snack bars, 2018. Retrieved from Mintel database.

In-text citation (Walji, 2018)

Orbis (Bureau van Dijk)

Bureau van Dijk. Company report: Suncor Energy Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Orbis database.

In-text citation (Bureau van Dijk, 2013)


Euromonitor International. (2012, November 7). Consumer lifestyles in Canada. Retrieved from Passport database.

In-text citation (Euromonitor International, 2012)



**Manifold Data Mining is the author- they own Polaris

Citing a report you created:

Manifold Data Mining. (2019). Profile report- (add neighbourhood names). Retrieved from www.polarisintelligence.com

In-text citation (Manifold Data Mining, 2019)

Citing the Lifestyle Cluster descriptions:

Manifold Data Mining. (2017, July 19). Manifold CanaCode lifestyle cluster. Retrieved from www.polarisintelligence.com

In-text citation (Manifold Data Mining, 2017, page number- if there are any in the report)  


Proquest Business Collection Complete

Moshiri, S. (2015). Asymmetric effects of oil price shocks in oil-exporting countries: The role of institutions. OPEC Energy Review, 39(2), 222-246. Retrieved from Proquest Business Collection Complete.

In-text citation (Moshiri, 2015)


CIBC Capital Trust. (2012, December 6). 2012 annual report. Retrieved from http://www.sedar.com/

In-text citation (CIBC Capital Trust, 2012)



SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics., 2008)


 SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics, 2017)

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

Cathers, D. (2012, October 25). Computers: Hardware [Industry survey]. Retrieved from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database

In-text citation (Cathers, 2012) 


Statista. (2019). Footwear market in Canada. Retrieved from Statista database.


In-text citation (Statista, 2019)


FYI Music News. (2019, April). Recorded music industry revenue in Canada from 2013 to 2018 (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In Statista. Retrieved from Statista database.


In-text citation (FYI Music News, 2019)


Mälkki, T., Sánchez, Oliver. (2018, September). Transportation: Air - ISIC 51 - Statista Industry Report – Global. Retrieved from Statista database.


In-text citatio(Mälkki & Sánchez, 2019)

Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (2018).  Table  18-10-0001-01  Monthly average retail prices for gasoline and fuel oil, by geography. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1810000101

In-text citation (Statistics Canada, 2018)

Thomson ONE

Doerksen, C. & Umayr, A. (2012, January 16). Westjet Airlines Ltd. National Bank Financial. Retrieved from Thomson ONE database.***

In-text citation (Doerksen & Umayr, 2012)

***Example courtesy of Concordia University Library.

Thomson Financial. (2015). Westjet Airlines Limited: Company overview. Retrieved from Thomson ONE database.

In-text citation (Thomson Financial, 2015)



Citing Online Business Articles

When you cite an article from an electronic source, APA prefers the DOI (if available). If there is no DOI, the second choice is a website URL

Reminder: You can list the database instead of a URL or DOI, if the cited information is not available on a public webpage, but was found in a library database.


Personal Communications

APA states “Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communication in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact date as possible”. (APA, 2009, p. 179)

An interview or a telephone conversation:

  • An interview or phone conversation do not provide recoverable data, and are NOT included in the reference list. You would only include them in the text of your report. Include communicator initials and surname as well as the date.

Email Communications

  • E-mail communications from individuals should be cited as personal communications. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.


First citation in text: J.T. Smith (personal communication, April 24, 2019) stated that headwinds continue to affect growth in the Alberta energy sector in 2019.

First citation in parenthetical format:  Headwinds continue to affect the Alberta energy sector in 2019 (J.T. Smith, personal communication, April 24, 2019).

BUS 201:

Site Visit at Costco (personal communication,  Apr. 12, 2019)

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