Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format.
Source: Reference List: Basic Rules (Purdue OWL)
Citing Business Databases:
Include the retrieval date when no exact date is found or when the content may be changed or updated frequently.
(Please note: the Business Librarians have adapted APA style for use by Business students, particularly when citing databases names in the of retrieval information.)
Tip: Most company and industry profiles do not have a personal author (ex: John Smith). When you do not have a personal author for a market research report or profile, you can use one of the following options:
Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/adspender
In-text citation (Kantar Media, n.d.)
BCC Research Staff. (2019, March). Wearable medical devices: Technologies and global markets. https://academic-bccresearch-com.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/member/index/libraryhome
In-text citation (BCC Research Staff, 2019)
BCC Research. (2018, May). Food Service Contractors: Global Markets to 2022. https://academic-bccresearch-com.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/member/index/libraryhome
In-text citation (BCC Research, 2018)
Bloomberg. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada. https://www.bloomberg.com/
Bloomberg. (2017). Environmental, social, and governance analysis for Bank of Canada 11/10/12 to 11/10/17. https://www.bloomberg.com/
In-text citation (Bloomberg, 2019)
Petrak, L. (2020). Full Circle: Reusable Packaging for Consumer Products and Reusable Containers for Food Retailers Reflect Continued Interest in Sustainability, Even in a Pandemic. Progressive Grocer, 99(8), 71–73.
In-text citation (Petrak, L. 2009)
Stephenson, A. (2012, Jun 15). Alberta tourism operators see market picking up. Calgary Herald. https://about.proquest.com/products-services/canadian_newsstand.html
In-text citation (Stephenson, 2012)
Brunico Communications. (n.d.). Bell Media. CARDOnline. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/cardonline
In-text citation (CARDonline, n.d.)
CCH Canadian Limited. (2013). Workers’ compensation in Canada, 51A. Retrieved from CCH Online database.
In-text citation (CCH Canadian Limited, 2013)
Firth, M., Murray, B.F., & Wisner, S. (Eds.). (2010, February). Recent cases: Tax court judge erred - failed to take into account extended definition of "property". Canadian GST Monitor, #257. Retrieved from CCH Online database.
In-text citation (Firth, Murray, & Wisner, 2010)
Ai, Lin. (2013, September). Canada's food manufacturing industry: Industrial outlook, Summer 2013. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-Data/anonymous.aspx
In-text citation (Ai, 2013)
Conference Board of Canada. (2012, May). Canada's oil and gas support activities industry: Industrial profile, Spring 2012. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-Data/anonymous.aspx
In-text citation (Conference Board of Canada, 2012)
Country Review Report
Youngblood-Coleman, Denise. (2010). Country Review: France. [2011 Edition]. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/countrywatch
In-text citation (Youngblood-Coleman, Denise, 2015)
** note: Denise Youngblood-Coleman is the editor-in-chief of CountryWatch, therefore is listed as author for Country Reviews. See the CountryWatch Citation page.
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)
Economist Intelligence Unit. (2015, September). Country report: Lithuania. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://www.eiu.com/uofAlberta
In-text citation (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2015)
Starbucks. (2012, September 30). Form 10-K. https://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/companysearch.html
In-text citation (Starbucks, 2012)
Briggs, P., Dolliver, M., Kim, A., Koch, L., & Wurmser, Y. (2020, February). Canada digital habits by generation: Identifying key distinctions across age groups, from teens to baby boomers. eMarketer. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://www.emarketer.com/Extranet.aspx?ualberta
In-text citation (Brigg et al., 2020)
Raice, S. (2013, January 8). Big banks settle mortgage hangover. Wall Street Journal, A1. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/factiva
In-text citation (Raice, 2013, A1)
FactSet Research Systems Inc. (2013). McDonalds Corp. Company snapshot. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/factiva
In-text citation (FactSet Research Systems Inc., 2013)
Tim Hortons. Company snapshot. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/financial-post
In-text citation (Tim Hortons, 2013)
First Research. (2012, June 4). Coffee shops. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/first-research
In-text citation (First Research, 2013)
Fitch Connect (Formerly known as BMI Research)
Fitch Solutions Group Limited. (n.d.). Mexico agribusiness report Q1 2020 [Industry profile]. BMI Research. https://web.library.ualberta.ca/pass_ejournals/fitchconnect
Frost and Sullivan
Frost and Sullivan. (2018, November 28). Future of mass market and premium performance vehicles, 2025. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/frost-and-sullivan
In-text citation (Frost and Sullivan, 2018)
Global Financial Data. (2013). Canada Dollar per US Dollar. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/global-financial-data
In-text citation (Global Financial Data, 2013)
Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] . IBISWorld. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=https://my.ibisworld.com/
In-text citation (Diment, 2019)
IMD World Competitiveness Online. (2015, September). Chile: Country profile. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/imd-world-competitiveness-yearbook.
In-text citation (IMD World Competitiveness Online, 2015)
Mind Commerce. (2020, May). IoT in healthcare: Market outlook and forecasts 2020-2027 [Market report]. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=https://www.marketresearch.com/academic
In-text citation (Mind Commerce, 2020).
Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/mergent-online
In-text citation (Mergent Inc., n.d.)
Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group: R. Dean Hollis [Executive bio]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/mergent-online
In-text citation (Mergent Inc., n.d.)
Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/mintel-reports
In-text citation (Failla, J., 2020)
Market Research Report
Mintel. (n.d.). Shampoo & conditioners: Retail market segmentation by values. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/mintel-reports
In-text citation (Mintel, n.d.)
Scarola, C. & Ko, W. (2020, May). Aerospace & defense [Industry survey]. NetAdvantage. http://na.capitaliq.com/ip/ALBTA
In-text citation (Scrola, C., 202
Bureau van Dijk. Company report: Suncor Energy Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/orbis
In-text citation (Bureau van Dijk, 2013)
Euromonitor. (2018, February 8). Population change as a megatrend driver [Briefing]. Passport. hhttps://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/passport
In-text citation (Euromonitor, 2018.
Euromonitor. (n.d.) Apparel and footwear dashboard: Store-based retailing [Chart]. Passport. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/passport
In-text citation (Euromonitor n.d.)
**Manifold Data Mining is the author- they own Polaris
Citing a report you created:
Manifold Data Mining. (2019). Profile report- (add neighbourhood names). Retrieved from https://app.polarisintelligence.com/education
In-text citation (Manifold Data Mining, 2019)
Citing the Lifestyle Cluster descriptions:
Manifold Data Mining. (2017, July 19). Manifold CanaCode
In-text citation (Manifold Data Mining, 2017, page number- if there are any in the report)
Proquest Business Collection Complete
Moshiri, S. (2015). Asymmetric effects of oil price shocks in oil-exporting countries: The role of institutions. OPEC Energy Review, 39(2), 222-246. Retrieved from https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/buscoll/advanced?accountid=14474
In-text citation (Moshiri, 2015)
CIBC Capital Trust. (2012, December 6). 2012 annual report. Retrieved from http://www.sedar.com/
In-text citation (CIBC Capital Trust, 2012)
Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.
SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [% households consuming imported beer/ale: Drank in last 6 months, for ZIP codes 55416, 55401, and Minneapolis metro area] [Data set]. MRI Consumer Survey US. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/simplyanalytics
SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US.https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/simplyanalytics
SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/simplyanalytics
SimplyAnalytics. (2018). [Map showing # multimarket data - Leisure activities - Current level of interest in major league soccer (MLS) - Somewhat, for Minneapolis-St. Paul DMA]. Scarborough Local Insights. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/simplyanalytics
Statista. (2019). Footwear market in Canada. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=https://www.statista.com/
FYI Music News. (2019, April). Recorded music industry revenue in Canada from 2013 to 2018 (in million U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In Statista.
(FYI Music News, 2019)
Mälkki, T., Sánchez, Oliver. (2018, September). Transportation: Air - ISIC 51 - Statista Industry Report – Global. https://login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/login?url=https://www.statista.com/
In-text citation (Mälkki & Sánchez, 2019)
Statistics Canada. (2017). Census profile, 2016 Census: Montréal (Census metropolitan area), Quebec and Quebec (Province) (Table 98-316-X2016001) [Data set]. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=462&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&SearchText=Montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1&type=0
Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Income - total sex: Total - income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households [Data set]. CHASS. http://datacentre.chass.utoronto.ca/
In-text citation (Statistics Canada, 2017)
Doerksen, C. & Umayr, A. (2012, January 16). Westjet Airlines Ltd. National Bank Financial. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/thomson-one
In-text citation (Doerksen & Umayr, 2012)
Thomson Financial. (2015). Westjet Airlines Limited: Company overview. https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/databases/thomson-one
In-text citation (Thomson Financial, 2015)
When you cite an article from an electronic source, APA prefers the DOI (if available). If there is no DOI, the second choice is a website URL
Reminder: You can list the database instead of a URL or DOI, if the cited information is not available on a public webpage, but was found in a library database.
APA states "Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communications are not included in the reference list; they are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible." (APA, 2020, p. 260)
An interview or a telephone conversation:
First citation in text: J.T. Smith (personal communication, April 24, 2019) stated that headwinds continue to affect growth in the Alberta energy sector in 2019.
First citation in parenthetical format: Headwinds continue to affect the Alberta energy sector in 2019 (J.T. Smith, personal communication, April 24, 2019).
Site Visit at Costco (personal communication, Apr. 12, 2019)
Cameron Library for
Sciences, Engineering & Business