Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
Source: Reference List: Basic Rules (Purdue OWL)
Citing Business Databases:
When citing from a library database, include the the database name only. Only use a URL when citing directly from a website or wiki. Include the retrieval date when no exact date is found or when the content may be changed or updated frequently.
(Please note: the Winspear Business Librarians have adapted APA style for use by Business students, particularly when citing databases names in the of retrieval information.)
Tip: Most company and industry profiles do not have a personal author (ex: John Smith). When you do not have a personal author for a market research report or profile, you can use one of the following options:
Kantar Media. (2014). Swiffer: Media mix report, annual, 2013 [Data]. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from Ad$pender database.*
In-text citation (Kantar Media, 2014)
*citation courtesy of Bentley University Library.
Kumar, Aneesh. (2015, June). Sports Nutrition and High Energy Supplements: The Global Market. Retrieved from BCC Research database.
In-text citation (Kumar, 2015)
BCC Research. (2018, May). Food Service Contractors: Global Markets to 2022. Retrieved from BCC Research database.
In-text citation (BCC Research, 2018)
Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved from Bloomberg database.
In-text citation (Bloomberg, 2008)
Business Monitor International. (2015, October). Philippines tourism report Q4 2015 (Industry overview). Retrieved from BMI Research database.
In-text citation (Business Monitor International, 2015)
Datamonitor. (2009, March). Pharmaceuticals, biotechnology & life sciences industry profile: Global. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
In-text citation (Datamonitor, 2009)
Stephenson, A. (2012, Jun 15). Alberta tourism operators see market picking up. Calgary Herald. Retrieved from Canadian Newsstand Complete database.
In-text citation (Stephenson, 2012)
CARDonline (2013). Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from CARDOnline database.
In-text citation (CARDonline, 2013)
CCH Canadian Limited. (2013). Workers’ compensation in Canada, 51A. Retrieved from CCH Online database.
In-text citation (CCH Canadian Limited, 2013)
Firth, M., Murray, B.F., & Wisner, S. (Eds.). (2010, February). Recent cases: Tax court judge erred - failed to take into account extended definition of "property". Canadian GST Monitor, #257. Retrieved from CCH Online database.
In-text citation (Firth, Murray, & Wisner, 2010)
Ai, Lin. (2013, September). Canada's food manufacturing industry: Industrial outlook, Summer 2013. Retrieved from the Conference Board of Canada e-Library service.
In-text citation (Ai, 2013)
Conference Board of Canada. (2012, May). Canada's oil and gas support activities industry: Industrial profile, Spring 2012. Retrieved from the Conference Board of Canada e-Library service.
In-text citation (Conference Board of Canada, 2012)
Country Review Report
Youngblood-Coleman, Denise. (2010). Country Review: France. [2011 Edition]. Retrieved from CountryWatch database.**
In-text citation (Youngblood-Coleman, Denise, 2015)
** note: Denise Youngblood-Coleman is the editor-in-chief of CountryWatch, therefore is listed as author for Country Reviews. See the CountryWatch Citation page.
Country Wire News Report
Love, Brian. (2015, September 22). OECD tells Europe to act fast with 1 million migrants expected. Country Wire. Retrieved from CountryWatch database.
In-text citation (Love, 2015)
Datastream International. Imports (NA) of goods and services (SAAR). Retrieved September 30, 2009 from Datastream database.
In-text citation (Datastream International, 2009)
Datastream International. Constituents of the S&P 500. Retrieved October 2, 2009 from Datastream database.
In-text citation (Datastream International, 2009)
Economist Intelligence Unit. (2015, September). Country report: Lithuania. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.
In-text citation (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2015)
Starbucks. (2012, September 30). Form 10-K. Retrieved from EDGAR database.
In-text citation (Starbucks, 2012)
Williamson, Debra Aho. (November 12, 2013). Social media advertising: Seven trends for 2014. Retrieved from eMarketer database.
In-text citation (Williamson, 2013)
Raice, S. (2013, January 8). Big banks settle mortgage hangover. Wall Street Journal, A1. Retrieved January 9, 2013 from Factiva database.
In-text citation (Raice, 2013, A1)
FactSet Research Systems Inc. (2013). McDonalds Corp. Company snapshot. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Factiva database.
In-text citation (FactSet Research Systems Inc., 2013)
Tim Hortons. Company snapshot. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from FinancialPost.com database.
In-text citation (Tim Hortons, 2013)
First Research. (2012, June 4). Coffee shops Retrieved from First Research database.
In-text citation (First Research, 2013)
Ray, A. & Riley, E. (2010, December 6). Twitter automatic messages: Easy but dangerous. Retrieved from Forrester Research database.
In-text citation (Ray & Riley, 2010)
Rajagopalan, Sowmya. (2014, January 6). Healthcare in the Netherlands. Retrieved from Frost and Sullivan database.
In-text citation (Rajagopolan, 2014)
Global Financial Data. (2013). Canada Dollar per US Dollar. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Global Financial Data database.
In-text citation (Global Financial Data, 2013)
Kruchkin, A. (2012, August). IBISWorld industry report 11111: Soybean farming in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
In-text citation (Kruchkin, 2012)
IMD World Competitiveness Online. (2015, September). Chile: Country profile. Retrieved from IMD World Competitiveness Online.
In-text citation (IMD World Competitiveness Online, 2015)
ISI Emerging Markets. (2010, December 18). Hotel listings. China Daily. Retrieved from ISI Emerging Markets database.
In-text citation (ISI Emerging Markets, 2010)
MarketLine. (2012, June 28). Hilton Worldwide [Company profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
In-text citation (MarketLine, 2012)
MarketLine. (2012, October 12). United States - hotels & motels [Industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.
In-text citation (MarketLine, 2012)
Packaged Facts. (2012, March). Mobile and alternative payments in Canada. Retrieved from MarketResearch.com Academic database.
In-text citation (Packaged Facts, 2012).
Mergent Inc. (2013). Google Inc.: Full company report. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Mergent Online database.
In-text citation (Mergent Inc., 2013)
Mintel Group Ltd. (2015, September). Infographic overview: Coffee. Retrieved from Mintel database.
In-text citation (Mintel Group Ltd., 2015)
Market Research Report
Walji, A. (2018, April). A year of innovation in snack bars, 2018. Retrieved from Mintel database.
In-text citation (Walji, 2018)
Bureau van Dijk. Company report: Suncor Energy Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Orbis database.
In-text citation (Bureau van Dijk, 2013)
Euromonitor International. (2012, November 7). Consumer lifestyles in Canada. Retrieved from Passport database.
In-text citation (Euromonitor International, 2012)
Moshiri, S. (2015). Asymmetric effects of oil price shocks in oil-exporting countries: The role of institutions. OPEC Energy Review, 39(2), 222-246. Retrieved from Proquest Business Collection Complete.
In-text citation (Moshiri, 2015)
CIBC Capital Trust. (2012, December 6). 2012 annual report. Retrieved from http://www.sedar.com/
In-text citation (CIBC Capital Trust, 2012)
SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.
In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics., 2008)
SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.
In-text citation (SimplyAnalytics, 2017)
Cathers, D. (2012, October 25). Computers: Hardware [Industry survey]. Retrieved from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database
In-text citation (Cathers, 2012)
Statista. (2015, October). Weekly social media site access in selected countries as of October 2015. Retrieved from Statista database.
In-text citation (Statista, 2015)
Statistics Canada (2018). Table 18-10-0001-01 Monthly average retail prices for gasoline and fuel oil, by geography. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1810000101
In-text citation (Statistics Canada, 2018)
Doerksen, C. & Umayr, A. (2012, January 16). Westjet Airlines Ltd. National Bank Financial. Retrieved from Thomson ONE database.***
In-text citation (Doerksen & Umayr, 2012)
***Example courtesy of Concordia University Library.
Thomson Financial. (2015). Westjet Airlines Limited: Company overview. Retrieved from Thomson ONE database.
In-text citation (Thomson Financial, 2015)
When you cite an article from an electronic source, APA prefers the DOI (if available). If there is no DOI, the second choice is a website URL
Reminder: You can list the database instead of a URL or DOI, if the cited information is not available on a public webpage, but was found in a library database.
APA states “Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communication in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact date as possible”. (APA, 2009, p. 179)
An interview or a telephone conversation:
First citation in text: J.T. Smith (personal communication, April 24, 2019) stated that headwinds continue to affect growth in the Alberta energy sector in 2019.
First citation in parenthetical format: Headwinds continue to affect the Alberta energy sector in 2019 (J.T. Smith, personal communication, April 24, 2019).
Site Visit at Costco (personal communication, Apr. 12, 2019)