Skip to Main Content

APA Citation Style (7th Edition)

General Web Resources

Social media

  • Instagram photo

University of Alberta Library [@uofalibrary]. (2020, April 23). We share a great passion for information & are always looking for new ways we can engage with it and [Photograph]. Instagram.

  • Tweet

Alberta Education [@AlbertaEd]. (2020, May 6). In-person classes at #abed schools will remain cancelled for the rest of the school year #COVID19AB [Link with image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

  • Facebook page

Alberta Health Services. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, pp. 348-350)

Wikipedia entry

List of most translated individual authors. (2020, May 10). In Wikipedia.

*Cite the archived version. If there is no permanent link, include the URL and retrieval date.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 329)

Webpage (group author, no date)

The Alberta Teachers' Association. (n.d.). Growing Up Digital (GUD) Alberta.

*To cite a website as a whole, simply include the URL in brackets within the text of your paper. No reference list entry is required.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, pp. 350-353)

Blog post

Schenk, A. (2020, May 13). Data physicalization. University of Alberta Library News Blog.

*Follow the same format as journal articles. 

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 320)

Email, text, online chat message, etc.
These are cited as “personal communications" because a reader cannot access the original source. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. In text, give the initials and surname of the communicator, and the date.

T. Jones (personal communication, April 18, 2018)
(C. J. Roche, personal communication, November 17, 2019)

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 260)

DOI or URL shorteners

It is acceptable to use the shortDOI service or a URL shortening service to shorten long links.
Always double check your links to make sure they go to the right location.

(See section 9.36 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)

Retrieval dates

An online retrieval date is only required for an unarchived source that is likely to change, such as a Twitter profile or Facebook page, or a webpage with no date. 

(See section 9.16 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)