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APA Citation Style

Sample audio / visual sources


Sommers-Flanagan, J. (2005). The challenge of counseling teens: Techniques for engaging and connecting with reluctant youth [Motion Picture]. Framingham, MA: Microtraining Associates.

Nolan, C. (Director and Producer). (2008). The Dark Knight [Motion Picture]. United States: Warner Home Video.

Note: Directors and Producers are given primary author credit for movie citations.

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.209)


Cohen Silver, R. (n.d.). Post-traumatic stress disorder [Audio podcast].  Retrieved from

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.210)


Community College of Rhode Island. (2009, November 10). A law enforcement internship [Video file]. Retrieved from

(APA style guide to electronic references, 2012, p.26)

Music recording

lang, k. d. (2004 ). Hallelujah. On Hymns of the 49th parallel [CD]. New York, NY: Nonsuch Records. 

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.210)

Television Series

Harmon, D. (Creator). (2009). Community [TV series]. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures.

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.209)

Television Single Episode

McKenna, C. (Writer) & Melman, J. (Director). (2011, October 13). Remedial chaos theory [TV episode]. In D. Harmon (Creator), Community. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures.

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.210)


Rauschenberg, R. (1964). Skyway [Painting]. Retrieved from

van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Oil on canvas]. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

(See also: artworks on the APA Style Blog)

Illustration, Chart, or other image from a published work

If you refer to an image from a published work, cite the work as normal following appropriate directions.

If you reproduce an image from a published work, credit the author and the copyright holder in a note immediately following the image.

Ex. Note. From Washington State University, Pullman, University Recreation. (2004). Men's Ice Hockey [Photograph]. Retrieved from Copyright 2002 by Board of Regents, Washington State University. Reprinted with permission.


VideoLan Organization. (n.d.). VLC media player (Version 2.0.1) [Software]. Available from

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.210-11)


InItaly Online. (2009). Map of Italy [Map]. Retrieved from

(Publication Manual, 2010, p.210)


Reading Rods Fluency & Comprehension Kit (Level 1). (n.d.). Vernon Hills, IL: Learning Resources.


Inflatable Geometric Shapes [Manipulatives]. (n.d.). Vernon Hills, IL: Learning Resources.


Wolf in Sheep's Clothing Stage Puppet [Toy]. (2010). Emeryville, CA: Folkmanis, Inc.


American Psychological Association. (2012). APA concise dictionary of psychology (Version 1.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

What's in the Square Brackets?

Multimedia sources require you to note their formats. Simply add the format to your reference in square brackets, directly following the title of the work. 

Examples: [Toy], [Motion Picture], [Twitter update], etc.

University of Alberta Libraries - University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2R3 - We are located on Treaty 6 / M├ętis Territory.