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APA Citation Style (7th Edition)

Audiovisual Media

Clip Art or Stock Images
See the Clip Art or Stock Image References entry on the APA Style site for examples on how to cite images from websites such as iStock, Pixabay, Flickr, etc.

Artwork (on a museum website)

Kahlo, F. (1940). Self-portrait with cropped hair [Oil on canvas]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 346)


Shere, S. (1937). The Hindenburg disaster [Photograph]. Time 100 Photos.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 347)

Podcast episode

Ward, A. (Host). (2020, August 18). Kalology (beauty standards) with Renee Engeln (No. 47) [Audio podcast episode]. In Ologies.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 345)


yegTreeMap. (n.d.). [Map of trees in Edmonton’s Gold Bar neighbourhood]. Retrieved May 22, 2020, from

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 347)


Dicaire, A. (2016). Old growth forest: Vancouver Island [Infographic]. Canadian Geographic.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, pp. 346-347)

Mobile App

Merriam-Webster. (2020). Merriam-Webster dictionary (Version 5.0.5) [Mobile app]. App store.

(APA Publication Manual, 2020, p. 340)

What's in the square brackets?

Use square brackets to describe (in your own words) works other than books, articles and other academic literature.

For audiovisual media, you must provide a description in square brackets following the title.

Examples: [Painting], [Film], [PowerPoint slides], [Tweet], [Status update], etc.

(See APA Style, and section 9.21 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)

Kits, objects, toys, etc.


Reading rods fluency & comprehension kit (Level 1) [Kit]. (n.d.). Vernon Hills, IL: Learning Resources.


Inflatable geometric shapes [Manipulatives]. (n.d.). Vernon Hills, IL: Learning Resources.


Wolf in sheep's clothing stage puppet [Toy]. (2010). Emeryville, CA: Folkmanis, Inc.