The guidelines on this page will help get you started. Consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition (in print: PE 1475 A52 2020), the APA style website, and the rest of this guide for more information and examples.
(See sections 9.7 to 9.12 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)
(See sections 9.13 to 9.17 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)
(See sections 9.18 to 9.22 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)
(See sections 9.23 to 9.37 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)
Every source cited in the text of your paper should have a corresponding entry in your reference list, with a few exceptions.
include only an in-text citation formatted as follows: (T. Jones, personal communication, April 30, 2019).
Entire websites, social media feeds:
include the URL in parentheses, for example: (https://www.library.ualberta.ca/).
NOTE: If you are citing a particular webpage, tweet or Facebook post (rather than the site or feed as a whole), a reference list entry is required. See our page on citing Web Resources.